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The first castle at Inverness was built in the twelfth century, possibly by David I. It guarded the routes to and from the Highlands. It was an earthwork structure which later received stonework, whose shape we are not able to determine. It had also had a hall built of timber boards, a domus Scoticana, for Alexander III. Its earthen outworks were also reinforced in 1263. The castle was captured by the Lord of the Isles in 1491 but retaken by James IV soon afterwards. It was severely damaged in Mary, Queen of Scots' reign, damaged again during the Civil War, and finally all but razed by the Young Pretender, Bonnie Prince Charlie, in 1746. The only remains are parts of the ancient curtain wall and some earthworks. The red sandstone exterior of Inverness is a victorian building. It has been transformed by a variety of works dating from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and is used as a courthouse.